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Region: Asia & Oceania
Full Name: Mongolia
Capital City: Ulaanbaatar
Language Spoken: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
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46 00 N, 105 00 E
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
total: 8,220 km border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
arable land: 0.76% permanent crops: 0% other: 99.24% (2005)
limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
A dry climate with short, mild summers and long, severe winters (October to April). Some rain falls during summer and there is snow during winter. Required clothing Mediumweights are worn during summer, with very warm heavyweights advised for winter.
time difference: UTC+8 daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September
2,832,224 (July 2006 est.)
0-14 years: 27.9% (male 402,448/female 387,059) 15-64 years: 68.4% (male 967,546/female 969,389) 65 years and over: 3.7% (male 45,859/female 59,923) (2006 est.)
total: 24.6 years male: 24.3 years female: 25 years (2006 est.)
1.46% (2006 est.)
21.59 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
6.95 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
total population: 64.89 years male: 62.64 years female: 67.25 years (2006 est.)
2.25 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Suits and ties are generally worn for business meetings. Mediumweight for summer and heavyweight for winter is recommended. Translator services should be arranged prior to departure to Mongolia, although an increasing number of executives speak English, and Russian is widely spoken. Office hours are 0900-1800 Monday to Friday and 0900-1500 Saturday.
Over the past few years there has been a significant rise in crime in Mongolia, particularly in Ulaan Baatar. Violent crime is increasing, and it is no longer advisable to walk alone through the city after dark. The most common crimes against foreigners are pickpocketing and bag-snatching. Travelers should be especially cautious in all crowded public areas such as markets, and while using public transportation. Visitors should avoid areas where protests and occasional street demonstrations can turn unruly.
The number of hotels in Ulaan Baatar and of tourist-oriented facilities in the countryside has increased sharply in recent years. Accommodations are readily available, although many hotels may be fully booked during the peak tourist month of July. There are three hotels in Ulaan Baator, offering a total of 900 beds. Nevertheless, outside the capital, hotels remain basic.
An Asiasat Earth station has been providing international telecommunications with Mongolia since 1994. The country code is 976. Fax services are available. Telex and telegram facilities are limited in Ulan Bator. Airmail to Europe takes up to two weeks. There is a DHL service in Ulan Bator.
is a 220 volts AC, 50Hz. Electricity 230 volts AC, 50Hz.
Meat is the basis of the diet, primarily beef and mutton. The local cooking is quite distinctive. Traditional meals generally consist of boiled mutton with lots of fat and flour with either rice or dairy products. One local specialty is Boodog; this is the whole carcass of a goat roasted from the inside ? the entrails and bones are taken out through the throat, the carcass is filled with burning hot stones and the neck tied tightly, and thus the goat is cooked from the inside to the outside. Fish is also beginning to be widely available. Mongolian tea (suutei tsai), meaning salty tea with milk, is very popular. Mongolian vodka is excellent, as is the beer (although it is expensive). Hot and cold beverages are not normally included in meals and many restaurants will add on a 13 per cent sales tax.
Not customary, but this is changing and, if leaving a tip, 10 per cent is the norm.
There are evening performances at the State Opera and Ballet Theater, State Drama Theater and Puppet Theater. The Folk Song and Dance Ensemble and People?s Army Song and Dance Ensemble are in the capital. Other major towns also have theaters. Circus entertainment is also very popular. There is also one cinema featuring English-language films, and large numbers of bars, nightclubs and restaurants that offer dancing or live entertainment (bands).
* Please see visa section below
Passport valid for at least six months required by all.
Required by all except the following:
(a) nationals of Kazakhstan for stays of up to three months;
(b) 1. nationals of the USA, if entering the country as a tourist, for stays of up to three months;
(c) nationals of Cuba, Israel and Malaysia for up to one month;
(d) nationals of The Philippines for stays of up to three weeks;
(e) nationals of Hong Kong and Singapore for stays of up to 14 days.
Business and Ordinary: Single-entry/Exit: US$60 Double-entry/Exit: US$86 Multiple-entry/Exit: US$112 Single-transit: US$52 Double-transit: US$60 Multiple-transit: US$69
Visas are generally valid for 30 days from date of entry (and three months from date of issue) and can be extended in Mongolia by a maximum of 30 days.
Consulate (or Consular section at Embassy); see General Info section. If traveling on an organized tour, visas can be obtained through tourism companies or travel agencies. A group visa in the name of the tour leader is valid for all tourists on the list attached, provided relevant details (nationality, sex, date of birth, passport numbers, and dates of issue and expiry) are given at the time of application.
All foreign nationals staying in Mongolia for longer than 30 days are required to register with the police within 10 days of arrival.
(a) Valid passport. (b) Application form. (c) One passport-size photo. (d) Fee, payable by cash or cheque; there is an additional ?5 fee for postal applications. Business (and any visas valid more than one month): (a)-(d) and, (e) Invitation letter from Mongolia.
Two to five. An express service is available which costs an additional ?10.
Enquire at the Mongolian Embassy.
Test required for students and anyone staying longer than 3 months
7-8 Kensington Court, London W8 5DL, UK
Tel: (020) 7937 0150 ext. 29 (visa section).
Opening hours: Mon-Fri 1000-1230 (visa section).
2833 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA
Tel: (202) 333 7117.
Most visits to Mongolia are trouble-free but you should be aware of the global risk of indiscriminate international terrorist attacks, which could be against civilian targets, including places frequented by foreigners.
Communications and health facilities in Mongolia, particularly outside Ulaanbaatar, can be poor.
Travelers entering Mongolia by road should be aware that only a few specified border crossings are open to foreigners.
This advice is based on information provided by the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office in the UK. It is correct at time of publishing. As the situation can change rapidly, visitors are advised to contact the following organizations for the latest travel advice:
Tugrik (MNT). Notes are in denominations of MNT10,000, 5000, 1000, 500, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5 and 1. Coins are in denominations of MNT500, 200, 100, 50 and 20.
The import of local currency is limited to Tg815, provided declared on arrival. Bank certificates must be shown. The import of foreign currency is limited to US$2000 or equivalent. The export of local and foreign currency is limited to the amount declared on arrival.
Mon-Fri 0930-1230 and 1400-1500.
Official organizations authorized to exchange foreign currency include commercial banks in Ulaanbaatar and bureaux de change at certain hotels. The easiest currency to exchange is the US Dollar.
Accepted by main commercial banks, large hotels and a few shops and restaurants in Ulaanbaatar. Credit card cash advances can be obtained at the Trade and Development Bank.
American Express Traveller's Cheques are most widely accepted although Thomas Cook are accepted by the Trade and Development Bank. To avoid additional exchange rate charges, travelers are advised to take traveller's cheques in US Dollars. Traveller's cheques can be difficult to exchange outside the capital.
Avoid dental treatment as the standards of care and hygiene cannot be guaranteed.
Medication in short supply and even when available is often out of date, temperature damaged or counterfeit and therefore should be avoided
Blood supplies should be considered as unsafe in Mongolia
Medical facilities in Mongolia are very limited, and some medicines are unavailable. Infectious diseases, such as plague and meningococcal meningitis, are present at various times of the year.
Recent medical and dental exams should ensure that the traveler is in good health. Carry appropriate health and accident insurance documents and copies of any important medical records. Bring an adequate supply of all prescription and other medications as well as any necessary personal hygiene items, including a spare pair of eyeglasses or contact lenses if necessary. Drink only bottled beverages (including water) or beverages made with boiled water. Do not use ice cubes or eat raw seafood, rare meat or dairy products. Eat well-cooked foods while they are still hot and fruits that can be peeled without contamination. Avoid roadside stands and street vendors. Swim only in well-maintained, chlorinated pools or water known to be free from pollution. Wear clothing which reduces exposed skin and apply repellents containing DEET to remaining areas. Sleep in well-screened accommodations. Carry anti-diarrheal medication. Reduce problems related to sun exposure by using sunglasses, wide-brimmed hats, sunscreen lotions and lip protection.
AIDS occurs. Blood supply may not be adequately screened and/or single-use, disposable needles and syringes may be unavailable. When possible, travelers should defer medical treatment until reaching a facility where safety can be assured. The blood type of the general Asian populace is Rh positive; Rh negative blood may be difficult to obtain.
Hepatitis A: Consider active immunization with hepatitis A vaccine or passive immunization with immune globulin (IG) for all susceptible travelers. Especially consider choosing active immunization for persons planning to reside for a long period or for persons who take frequent short-term trips to risk areas. The importance of protection against hepatitis A increases as length of stay increases. It is particularly important for persons who will be living in or visiting rural areas, eating or drinking in settings of poor or uncertain sanitation, or who will have close contact with local persons (especially young children) in settings with poor sanitary conditions. Hepatitis B: Vaccination is advised for health care workers, persons anticipating direct contact with blood from or sexual contact with inhabitants, and persons planning extended stays of 6 months or greater (especially those who anticipate using local health care facilities, staying in rural areas, or having intimate contact with the local population). Plague: Vaccination is recommended only for those persons whose occupation or circumstances make avoidance of fleas and rodents difficult when traveling or working in rural or urban areas where plague is known to be active in wild rodents or has been reported to exist in humans and/or commensal rats. Polio: A one-time booster dose is recommended for travelers who have previously completed a standard course of polio immunization. Refer to CDC guidelines for vaccinating unimmunized or incompletely immunized persons. Pregnancy is a relative contraindication to vaccination; however, if protection is needed, either IPV or OPV may be used, depending on preference and time available. Rabies: Preexposure vaccination should be considered for persons staying longer than 30 days who are expected to be at risk to bites from domestic and/or wild animals (particularly dogs), or for persons engaged in high risk activities such as spelunking or animal handling. Need for vaccination is more important if potential exposure is in rural areas and if adequate postexposure care is not readily available. Typhoid: Vaccination should be considered for persons staying longer than 3 weeks, adventurous eaters, and those who will venture off the usual tourist routes into small cities, villages and rural areas. Importance of vaccination increases as access to reasonable medical care becomes limited. Contraindications depend on vaccine type. Note: All routine vaccines (such as DTP or Td, Hib, MMR, polio, varicella, influenza and pneumococcal) should be kept up-to-date as a matter of good health practice unrelated to travel.
Insect-borne illness: Dengue fever - occurs Encephalitis (Japanese type) - occurs Hemorrhagic fever (with renal syndrome) - occurs Plague - occurs Food-borne and water-borne illness: diseases such as the diarrheal diseases and viral hepatitis are common. Other hazards: High levels of immunization coverage have reduced the incidence of diseases such as measles and diphtheria. Polio is still considered a possible risk, although no cases have been reported in recent years. Influenza risk extends from November to April. Meningococcal meningitis - occurs
AIDS: According to the Department of State, testing is required for persons staying longer than 3 months. This is not an official law, therefore it is selectively enforced. Foreign test results are accepted under certain conditions. Contact Mongolia's embassy for details.
No recent disease outbreaks
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