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Pakistan Country Guide

  1. CountryFacts
  2. Health
  3. Media
  1. Intro
  2. Geography
  3. People
  4. Travel
  5. Embassies & Visas
  6. Finance
  7. Cities/Regions

Quick Facts

Region: Asia & Oceania
Full Name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Capital City: Islamabad
Language Spoken: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%

Pakistan Travel Insurance

 

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Geographic data

30 00 N, 70 00 E

Elevation Extremes

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

Land boundaries

total: 6,774 km border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

Natural hazards

frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

Natural resources

land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use

arable land: 24.44% permanent crops: 0.84% other: 74.72% (2005)

Environmental current issues

water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Climate

Pakistan has three seasons: winter (November to March) is warm and cooled by sea breezes on the coast; summer (April to July) has extreme temperatures and the monsoon season (July to September) has the highest rainfall on the hills. Karachi has little rain. The best time to visit southern Pakistan is between November and March, when the days are cool and clear. The best time to visit northern Pakistan is from April to October. Required clothing Lightweights, with warmer clothing for upland areas in the winter. Rainwear is advised for the monsoon season.

Time difference

time difference: UTC+5

Population

165,803,560 (July 2006 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 39% (male 33,293,428/female 31,434,314) 15-64 years: 56.9% (male 48,214,298/female 46,062,933) 65 years and over: 4.1% (male 3,256,065/female 3,542,522) (2006 est.)

Median age

total: 19.8 years male: 19.7 years female: 20 years (2006 est.)

Population growth rate

2.09% (2006 est.)

Birth rate

29.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Death rate

8.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 63.39 years male: 62.4 years female: 64.44 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate

4 children born/woman (2006 est.)

Business Practices

Ties should be worn for important business appointments. Businessmen, government officials and service personnel commonly use English. Appointments should be made, remembering that businesses are usually closed on Muslim holidays. Visiting cards should be used. Men usually greet other men with a handshake. Do not use first names until invited to do so, and the only title necessary for normal use is "Doctor", and only for medical doctors. Office hours 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. Sunday through Thursday; 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. on Saturday. Banks are closed on Friday. During Ramadan, banking and business hours are 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.

Crime

Crime is a serious concern for foreigners throughout Pakistan, with violent crime increasing faster than any other category. Carjackings, armed robberies, house invasions and other violence against civilians have increased steadily in the major urban areas. Lahore and Karachi, in particular, experience high levels of crime. They are large cities beset by poverty, high unemployment, and underpaid, under-manned police forces. Travelers in Karachi are encouraged to use hotel shuttles from the airport rather than taxis, which are subject to police harassment, especially after dark. Petty crime, especially theft of personal property, is common throughout Pakistan. Karachi and the southern parts of Punjab province have experienced protracted political or sectarian violence that, although not explicitly directed at foreigners, poses a potential danger to travelers. During the Islamic religious observances of Ramadan and Moharram, sectarian rivalry and violence often increase. Northern Areas - Visitors wishing to trek in Gilgit, Hunza, Chitral and the upper Swat valley should use only licensed guides and tourist agencies. There have been occasional assaults and in 1998 a tourist who was not accompanied by a guide was murdered in Gilgit. Northwest Frontier Province - Because of dangerous security visitors are advised against travel to the tribal areas, even if traveling overland to the Khyber Pass. Substantial areas within the Northwest Frontier Province are designated tribal areas and are outside the normal jurisdiction of government law enforcement authorities. Visitors risk being caught in armed clashes between feudal tribal factions or smugglers. Carjackings and the abduction of foreigners are occasionally reported from the tribal areas. If visitors must enter the tribal areas, a permit from the Home and Tribal Affairs Department is required. The permit may stipulate that an armed escort must accompany the visitor. Even in the settled areas of the Northwest Frontier Province, there is occasional ethnic, sectarian, and political violence as well as anti-foreign rhetoric; foreigners should steer clear of such demonstrations or known areas of conflict. However, the monthly steam train excursion for tourists through the Khyber Pass is well protected by local authorities. Punjab Province - Sectarian violence decreased considerably during the first half of 1999, from the high 1998 levels of violence, which resulted in dozens of deaths. While Americans are not targets of this violence, the foreign community is not immune, as evidenced by the 1997 assassination of five Iranians in an attack widely believed to have had sectarian overtones. As a precaution against possible dangers resulting from sectarian violence, visitors are cautioned to avoid public transportation and crowded areas. Sindh Province - In the areas of Karachi and Hyderabad there have been recurring outbreaks of ethnic and sectarian violence characterized by random bombings, shootings and mass demonstrations. These have resulted in deaths and the imposition of curfews. There have also been numerous incidents of kidnappings for ransom. In rural Sindh Province, the security situation is hazardous, especially in regard to overland travel. Foreigners have occasionally been kidnapped and, in a 1995 incident, the foreign kidnap victim was killed in a subsequent gunfight between police and bandits. The Government of Pakistan has recommended that travelers limit their movements in Sindh Province to the city of Karachi. If visitors must go into the interior of Sindh Province, the Government of Pakistan requests that travelers inform police authorities well in advance of the trip so that necessary police security arrangements can be made. Baluchistan Province - The province of Baluchistan, which borders both Iran and Afghanistan, is notorious for cross-border smuggling. Armed battles between clans are frequent. Because provincial police presence is limited, travelers wishing to visit the interior of Baluchistan should consult with the province?s Home Secretary. Advance permission from provincial authorities is required for travel into some areas. Local authorities have detained travelers who lack permission. Although Quetta, the provincial capital, is quieter than the interior, it has experienced serious ethnic violence that has led to gun battles in the streets and the imposition of curfews.

Hotels

There are international-standard hotels in the major cities of Pakistan. Four and five-star hotels in business centers include the Avari Towers, Sheraton, Pearl Continental, Marriott and the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza in Karachi; the Avari, Pearl Continental and Holiday Inn in Lahore; the Faisalabad Serena in Faisalabad; the Marriott, Holiday Inn and Best Western in Islamabad; the Pearl Continental in Rawalpindi; the Pearl Continental in Peshawar; and the Quetta Serena in Quetta.

Communications

Telephone IDD service is available and the country code is 92. The outgoing international code is 00. A fax service was introduced in 1986 by the Pakistan telephone and telegraph department and is available in most major hotels. Cellular phones are available for visiting businessmen and are at times more reliable for international communications than the local conventional telephones. Internet facility and e-mail services are currently available in all the major cities of Pakistan. General Post Offices in major cities offer 24-hour services. Important letters should be registered or insured.

Electricity

is 220 volts AC, 50Hz. Round 2- or 3-pin plugs are in use. Electricity 220 volts AC, 50Hz. Round two- or three-pin plugs are in use.

Plug Types

C,D

Food And Dining

Pakistani cuisine is based on curry or masala (hot and spicy) sauces accompanying chicken, lamb, shrimps and a wide choice of vegetables.

National specialties:
? Biryani (seasoned rice with mutton, chicken and yogurt).
? Sag gosht (spinach and lamb curry).
? Shish kebabs (charcoal-grilled meat on skewers).
? Shami-kebabs (patties of chopped meat fried in ghee or butter).
? Halwa (sweetmeat made with eggs, carrots, maize cream, sooji and nuts).
? Firni (similar to vanilla custard). National drinks: ?Tea (drunk strong with milk and often very sweet). Things to know: Alcohol may be bought at major hotels by visitors who have been issued a Liquor Permit from the Excise and Taxation Office. Wine is expensive and only available in upscale restaurants. Pakistani-brewed beer is widely available, as are canned carbonated drinks. There are no bars since there are strict laws concerning alcohol, and it is illegal to drink in public. Waiter service is provided in the larger hotels and restaurants. Visitors should avoid drinking water from the tap; bottled water is available everywhere, but it is necessary to make sure it comes in properly sealed plastic bottles.
Tipping:
Most high-class hotels and restaurants add a 10 per cent service charge. Other tipping is discretionary.
Nightlife
Top hotels have bars and dancing but there is little Western-style nightlife. Cinemas in the large cities show international as well as Pakistani films. There are plenty of cultural events featuring traditional music and dance organized by the Pakistani Arts Academy throughout the year. Festivals and annual celebrations are colorful and lively.

Entry departure requirements

Note Travelers are currently advised against travel to certain areas of Pakistan: All travel to Waziristan is strongly discouraged. All non-essential travel to northern and western Baluchistan and western North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and all border areas is advised against. Restricted entry and transit The Government of Pakistan refuses entry to nationals of Israel, even for transit. Nationals of Afghanistan are refused entry if their passports or tickets show evidence of transit or boarding in India. Holders of Taiwan (China) passports are refused entry except in transit or airport transit.

Visa immigration information

Passports

Passport valid for six months beyond the intended length of stay required by all.

Visas

Required by all except the following:
(a) holders of a Pakistan Origin Card (POC) regardless of nationality for unlimited stay;
(b) nationals of Tonga and Trinidad & Tobago for an unlimited period;
(c) nationals of Iceland, Maldives and Zambia for stays of up to a maximum of three months;
(d) nationals of Nepal and Samoa, and holders of Chinese passports issued in Hong Kong (SAR), for stays of up to 30 days;
(e) transit passengers continuing their journey within 24 hours by the same or first connecting aircraft, provided they are holding onward or return documentation and not leaving the airport;
(f) holders of UN laissez-passer.

Note

Nationals of Algeria, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iraq, Israel, Libya, Nigeria, Palestinian Authority passport holders, Serbia & Montenegro, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Yemen must report to the nearest Foreigners Registration Office for registration, except for those issued Work permits/visas in the managerial category. In certain circumstances, this may also be applicable to other nationals and will be indicated on their passports.

Types of visa and cost

Price of visa varies according to nationality. For UK nationals, prices are: Single-entry: US$69 ; Double-entry: US$93 ; Multiple-entry: US$127 These prices are identical to those issued for the Visa for Media Professionals, which must be routed through the Information Division of the Pakistan High Commission. For Pakistanis holding dual nationality, prices are: Adult: US$34 ; Child (up to 18 years old): US$17 ; valid for stays of up to one year. Applicants with parents holding Pakistani passports get the same concession, provided they produce the original detailed birth certificate and their parents? Pakistani passports. Pilgrim (Single-entry): US$77 This is issued to those wishing to visit holy places (Shrines/Gurdawaras) in Pakistan and is allowed for groups of pilgrims, normally restricted to a specified period. Business: US$117 (Single-entry); US$155 (Double-entry); US$210 (Multiple-entry).
Note: An 80 pence bank surcharge per application for a visa or passport is required. Certain nationals are issued visas free of charge, but they must be obtained prior to travel. For further information, consult the High Commission or Embassy.

Validity

Single-entry/Double-entry: six months from the date of issue for stays of up to three months. Multiple-entry: six months to one year.

Application to

Consulate (or Consular section at Embassy or High Commission); see Passport/Visa Information.

Application requirements

(a) Original valid passport, plus one photocopy. (b) One application form. (c) Two passport-size photos. (d) Confirmed return/onward ticket. (e) Proof of sufficient funds for duration of stay. (f) Fee payable by cash or postal order only. (g) For business trips, a letter of invitation from a company in Pakistan.

Note

There may be slightly different application requirements for Indian nationals and the nearest Consulate/Embassy should be contacted for further information prior to travel.

Working days required

Depends on nationality (in UK, visas are normally granted within 24 to 48 hours). Enquire at the nearest Consulate or Embassy. Pilgrim visas require two months' processing time.

HIV entry requirements

Test required for anyone staying over 1 year.

Departure tax

PKR400-800 depending on the airport and class of travel. Transit passengers and children under two years of age are exempt. Departure tax is payable by cash only, credit cards are not accepted.

Embassies

High Commission for the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in the UK

34-36 Lowndes Square, London SW1X 9JN, UK
Tel: (020) 7664 9200 or 9204.
Website: www.pakmission-uk.gov.pk
Opening hours: Mon-Fri 0930-1730; 0930-1200 (visa submission); 1600-1700 (visa collection).

Consulate General of Pakistan in the UK

Pakistan House, 137 Dickenson Road, Rusholme, Manchester M14 5JB, UK
Tel: (0161) 225 2005.

Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in the USA

3517 International Court, NW, Washington, DC 20008, USA
Tel: (202) 243 6500.
Website: http://www.embassyofpakistanusa.org/

Consulate General of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in the USA

12 East, 65th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA
Tel: (212) 879 5800 or 517 7541.
Website: http://www.embassyofpakistanusa.org/
A large earthquake on 8 October 2005 with its epicenter near Muzaffarabad in Azad Kashmir has caused widespread damage. Infrastructure and services in northern Pakistani-administered Kashmir and surrounding areas have been severely disrupted.
All travel is advised against to the Federally Administered Tribal Areas adjacent to Afghanistan, including Waziristan and the Khyber Pass. Travelers are also advised against all travel to areas where there are ongoing military operations.
Travelers are advised against all but essential travel to the Swat Valley in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP), northern and western Baluchistan, including Quetta, and the Sui/Dera Bugti area, and to all border areas except for official crossing points. Travelers are advised against using the rail network in Baluchistan.
There is a high threat from terrorism throughout Pakistan. Previous attacks against Westerners have included bombings and kidnaps.
There is a high risk of sectarian violence throughout Pakistan. Travelers are advised to avoid places of worship and surrounding areas at busy prayer times.
Since mid-July 2005, sectarian tensions in the Gilgit area have risen sharply and have included violent attacks. Travelers should only travel to Gilgit by air, and avoid the center of town. Road travel direct from the airport north to Baltistan and the Hunza valley is possible. Caution should be exercised when traveling by road along the Karakorum Highway (KKH). Travelers are advised to join a police-guarded convoy and travel in daylight hours on the KKH.
There is also a serious risk of criminal violence, especially in Karachi. Travelers should be very careful about, and confident of their personal security arrangements throughout their visit.
If you or your father were born in Pakistan you may be considered a Pakistan national. In such circumstances, the British Government may be prevented from providing a full range of Consular assistance.
This advice is based on information provided by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in the UK. It is correct at time of publishing. As the situation can change rapidly, visitors are advised to contact the following organisaions for the latest travel advice:

British Foreign and Commonwealth Office

Website: https://www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice/pakistan

US Department of State

Website: https://travel.state.gov/content/travel/en/international-travel/International-Travel-Country-Information-Pages/Pakistan.html

Currency

Pakistan Rupee (PKR) = 100 paisa. Notes are in denominations of PKR1000, 500, 100, 50, 10 and 5. Coins are in denominations of PKR2 and 1, and 50 and 25 paisa.

Currency restrictions

The import and export of local currency is limited to PRs100 in denominations of PRs10 or less (the import of banknotes in denominations of PRs50 and PRs100 or more is prohibited). The import and export of foreign currency are unlimited. Up to Prs500 may be reconverted into foreign currency, provided official exchange receipts are shown.

Banking hours

Mon-Sat 0900-1330, Fri 0900-1230.

Currency exchange

Credit cards

American Express is the most widely accepted card. MasterCard and Visa are also good, but Diners Club and other cards have more limited use. Check with your credit or debit card company for details of merchant acceptability and other services which may be available.

Travellers cheques

Generally accepted at most banks, 4- and 5-star hotels and major shops. To avoid additional exchange rate charges, travelers are advised to take traveller's cheques in US Dollars or Pounds Sterling.

City/RegionCity/Area codeFollowed by
Abottabad(0)992+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Attock(0)57+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Awaran(0)856+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Badin(0)297+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Bahawalnagar(0)63+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Bahawalpur(0)62+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Bajaur Agency(0)942+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Bannu(0)928+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Barkhan(0)829+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Bhakkar(0)453+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Bolan(0)832+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Buner(0)939+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Chagai(0)825+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Chakwal(0)543+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Chitral(0)943+ 6 digit subscriber nr
D.I.Khan(0)966+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Dadu(0)25+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Dera Bugti(0)835+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Dera Ghazi Khan(0)64+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Dir (lower)(0)945+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Dir (upper)(0)944+ 6 digit subscriber nr
F.R. Lakki Marwat(0)969+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Faisalabad(0)41+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Ghotki(0)723+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Gujranwala(0)55+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Gujrat(0)53+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Gwadar(0)86+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Hafizabad(0)547+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Hangu(0)925+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Haripur(0)995+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Hyderabad(0)22+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Islamabad(0)51+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Jacobabad(0)722+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Jaffarabad(0)838+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Jhal Magsi(0)837+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Jhang(0)47+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Jhelum(0)544+ 6 digit subscriber nr
K. Abdullah(0)826+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Kalat(0)844+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Karachi(0)21+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Karak(0)927+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Kasur(0)49+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Kech(0)852+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Khairpur(0)243+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Khanewal(0)65+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Kharan(0)847+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Khushab(0)454+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Khuzdar(0)848+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Khyber Agency(0)924+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Killa Saifullah(0)823+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Kohat(0)922+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Kohistan(0)998+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Kurram Agency(0)926+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Lahore(0)42+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Larkana(0)74+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Lasbela(0)853+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Layyah(0)606+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Lodhran(0)608+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Loralai(0)824+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Malakand(0)932+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Mandi Bahauddin(0)546+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Mansehra(0)997+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Mardan(0)937+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Mastung(0)843+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Mianwali(0)459+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Mirpur Khas(0)233+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Multan(0)61+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Musakhel(0)828+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Muzaffargarh(0)66+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Narowal(0)542+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Naushero Feroze(0)242+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Nawabshah(0)244+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Nowshera(0)923+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Okara(0)44+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Pakpattan(0)457+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Panjgur(0)855+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Peshawar(0)91+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Quetta(0)81+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Rahim Yar Khan(0)68+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Rajanpur(0)604+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Sahiwal(0)40+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Sanghar(0)235+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Sargodha(0)48+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Shangla(0)996+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Sheikhupura(0)56+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Shikarpur(0)726+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Sialkot(0)52+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Sibi(0)833+ 6 digit subscriber nr
South Waziristan(0)965+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Sukkur(0)71+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Swabi(0)938+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Swat(0)946+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Tank(0)963+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Tharparkar(0)232+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Thatta(0)298+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Toba Tek Singh(0)46+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Umerkot(0)238+ 6 digit subscriber nr
Vehari(0)67+ 7 digit subscriber nr
Zhob(0)822+ 6 digit subscriber nr
  1. Health Information
  2. Recent Disease Outbreak
  3. Hospital Database

Dental care

Good quality care is available in the largest hospitals in the cities

Medication Availability

Some international medication is available from the larger pharmacies and hospitals in the larger towns and cities.

Blood supplies

Screening is inconsistent in Pakistan, therefore blood supplies should be considered as unsafe

Medical facilities

Adequate medical care is available in major cities in Pakistan, but is limited in rural areas.

General caution

Recent medical and dental exams should ensure that the traveler is in good health. Carry appropriate health and accident insurance documents and copies of any important medical records. Bring an adequate supply of all prescription and other medications as well as any necessary personal hygiene items, including a spare pair of eyeglasses or contact lenses if necessary. Drink only bottled beverages (including water) or beverages made with boiled water. Do not use ice cubes or eat raw seafood, rare meat or dairy products. Eat well-cooked foods while they are still hot and fruits that can be peeled without contamination. Avoid roadside stands and street vendors. Swim only in well-maintained, chlorinated pools or ocean water known to be free from pollution. Wear clothing which reduces exposed skin and apply repellents containing DEET to remaining areas. Sleep in well-screened accommodations. Carry anti-diarrheal medication. Reduce problems related to sun exposure by using sunglasses, wide-brimmed hats, sunscreen lotions and lip protection.

Specific concerns

A new strain of cholera (Bengal cholera) has appeared in Pakistan. Disease caused by this new strain is characterized by extremely rapid onset of severe symptoms. The current cholera vaccine affords no protection against this new strain; therefore, particular caution should be taken with food, beverages and personal hygiene. Persons becoming ill should seek immediate medical care and rehydration therapy. AIDS occurs. Blood supply may not be adequately screened and/or single-use, disposable needles and syringes may be unavailable. When possible, travelers should defer medical treatment until reaching a facility where safety can be assured. Pollution from open trash fires can cause excess irritation. Refrigeration and sanitary packaging of foodstuffs in public markets are rare.

Immunization

Hepatitis A: Consider active immunization with hepatitis A vaccine or passive immunization with immune globulin (IG) for all susceptible travelers. Especially consider choosing active immunization for persons planning to reside for a long period or for persons who take frequent short-term trips to risk areas. The importance of protection against hepatitis A increases as length of stay increases. It is particularly important for persons who will be living in or visiting rural areas, eating or drinking in settings of poor or uncertain sanitation, or who will have close contact with local persons (especially young children) in settings with poor sanitary conditions. Hepatitis B: Vaccination is advised for health care workers, persons anticipating direct contact with blood from or sexual contact with inhabitants, and persons planning extended stays of 6 months or greater (especially those who anticipate using local health care facilities, staying in rural areas, or having intimate contact with the local population). Japanese Encephalitis: Consider vaccination if staying a month or more in the central river deltas or areas near Karachi from June to January when transmission is presumed to occur, especially if travel includes rural areas. Also consider if staying less than 30 days during that period and at high risk (in case of epidemic outbreak or extensive outdoor exposure in rural areas). Polio: A one-time booster dose is recommended for travelers who have previously completed a standard course of polio immunization. Refer to CDC guidelines for vaccinating unimmunized or incompletely immunized persons. Pregnancy is a relative contraindication to vaccination; however, if protection is needed, either IPV or OPV may be used, depending on preference and time available. Rabies: Preexposure vaccination should be considered for persons staying longer than 30 days who are expected to be at risk to bites from domestic and/or wild animals (particularly dogs), or for persons engaged in high risk activities such as spelunking or animal handling. Need for vaccination is more important if potential exposure is in rural areas and if adequate postexposure care is not readily available. Typhoid: Vaccination should be considered for persons staying longer than 3 weeks, adventurous eaters, and those who will venture off the usual tourist routes into small cities, villages and rural areas. Importance of vaccination increases as access to reasonable medical care becomes limited. Contraindications depend on vaccine type. Note: All routine vaccines (such as DTP or Td, Hib, MMR, polio, varicella, influenza and pneumococcal) should be kept up-to-date as a matter of good health practice unrelated to travel.

Disease risk summary

Insect-borne illness: Dengue fever - occurs Encephalitis (Japanese type) - occurs Hemorrhagic fever (Crimean-Congo) - occurs Hemorrhagic fever (tick-borne) - occurs in rural Rawalpindi Leishmaniasis (visceral) - prevalent Malaria - occurs Sandfly fever - prevalent Food-borne and water-borne illness: common throughout the area, in particular cholera and other watery diarrheas, the dysenteries, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, and helminthic (parasitic worm) infections. Brucellosis - common Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) - common Other hazards: Diseases such as measles and diphtheria are commonly reported, and cases of polio still occur regularly. Influenza risk extends from November to April. Rabies in animals is a hazard in most areas. Trachoma - common

Entry requirements

Yellow fever: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required from travelers coming from any part of a country in which yellow fever is endemic; infants under 6 months of age are exempted if the mother's vaccination certificate shows she had been duly vaccinated prior to the birth of the child. The countries and areas that were included in the former endemic zones are considered by Pakistan as infected areas.

Recent disease outbreaks

No recent disease outbreaks

NameAddress
7th Day Adventist HospitalM.A. Jinnah Road Karachi 74400
Aga Khan University HospitalStadium Road P O Box 3500 Karachi 74800
Doctors Hospital and Medical CentreLahore
Liaquat National HospitalStadium Road Karachi 74000
Shaukat Khanum Memorial Hospital7-A Block R-3, M.A. Phase II, Johar Town GPO Box 2072 Lahore
Shifa International HospitalPatris Bokari Road Sector H-8/4 Islamabad

Media

President Pervez Musharraf's rule has been marked by increased freedom for the print media and liberalization of broadcasting policies; the state's monopoly has been diminished by the expansion of private radio and TV stations. In 2005, issued licenses for private FM radio stations totalled around 100. However, Private stations are not allowed to broadcast news. Pakistani censorship, however, remains far more rigorous than in India. The Pakistani Government uses a range of legal and constitutional powers to curb press freedom. The country's law on blasphemy has been used against journalists. Nevertheless, Pakistan's print media are among the most outspoken in South Asia.
Press: The English-language press enjoys a great deal of influence in business circles. Dailies include Business Recorder, Dawn (website: www.dawn.com), Financial Post, Frontier Post (website: http://frontierpost.com.pk), Leader, Pakistan Observer, Pakistan Times, Star, The Nation (website: www.nation.com.pk) and The News (website: www.jang.com.pk).
TV: Pakistan Television Corporation Ltd is a state TV broadcaster that operates PTV 1, PTV 2, Channel 3 and PTV World. Geo TV and Indus TV are popular satellite channels. Shalimar Television Network (STN) has both state-run and privately owned networks.
Radio: Radio Pakistan is state-run and operates more than 20 stations nationwide, an external service and the FM 101 network, aimed at younger listeners. Azad Kashmir Radio is also state-run, whilst FM 100 is a commercial, music-based FM network.

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